July 20th H1B visa FY 2011 Cap count Update – 900 petitions filed. Analysis

In H1B Visa by KumarUpdated : 93 Comments

USCIS today released the latest cap count update and the H1B cap count as of July 16th, 2010.  Here is an update since previous cap numbers :

  • New 500 Cap eligible H1B visa petitions were filed for Regular Quota.
  • New 400 cap eligible H1B petitions for Advanced degree cap .

Updated : Check  H1B FY 2011 cap count update page for  new updates, Analysis and Prediction

July 16th , 2010 USCIS official Total H1B cap count update :

Regular H1B Cap H1B filings25,300    of total 65,000
Advanced degree cap filing count11,000    of total 20,000
Total H1B visa petitions received36,300 of total 85,000

Analysis of H1B filings this week, Macroeconomic factors

Total H1B petitions filed increased by 100 compared with last week’s July13th H1B visa cap count. The filing count in the H1B general cap quota further decreased from 600 petitions to 500 petitions and Advanced degree cap increased from 200 to 400. If you observe the count, it is consistent decline in the regular quota number for two consecutive weeks. Bu, advanced cap has been just going up and down and this week it is up.  Nothing new or we  do not see any spikes. We should be on track.

If we look at the macroeconomic factors, big news is the new home construction drops to lowest since last October, though it directly does not impact the H1B visa filing, there is a ripple effect because all the industry is closely tied with all the raw material manufacturers and IT companies tied to them. Some of them say there is a chance for double dip recession… On the other hand, as I was listening to news today they were saying financial companies are hiring because of the surge in the demand for the underwriting in the banking sector. The recovery is set to be slow…Either case the outlook for H1B visa filing seems to continue at the same pace and based on the filings, we may have the regular quota last till end of this year…

Can you think of anything that may impact H1B filings ?

Regular H1B 2011 cap count Trend Graph

July 20 H1B 2011 Cap Count and Predictions   2010

Advanced Degree H1B Cap Prediction Graphs

July 20 Advanced Degree H1B 2011 Cap Count and Predictions


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Comments ( 93 )

  1. Nandini

    I had applied for a H1-B visa on May 3rd 2011. But my project is ending on May 27th 2011. Will this effect my H1-B result.


        1. Abhaya

          Thank You Nandini…

          I have applied on May5…we didnt receive recipt no…can you please let me know when did you receive receipt no..

          1. Nandini

            I recieved it on May 4th 2011, it took just one day to get a receipt number for me. But my question was not answered, that is if the project gets finished in between of our H1-B processing will the H1-B get denied.


          2. amol

            Hi nandini
            I dont think h1b will get rejected. how they will know. but evn if thats approved thats invalid because u are not getting paid

          3. Nandini

            what I mean to say is that if i go to a new project afterwards i will get paid but the thing is as I had submitted a client letter from a project that has recently ended will I get a query.

    1. administrator

      If the project end date was submitted as 27th May during H-1 filing, then most likely an RFE would be issued for new project information. Typically, USCIS wants to see project for most of the H-1 duration, and as your project has already ended, it’s not covering any part of requested H-1 period.

      BTW, project or no project, you need to be getting paid by your H-1 employer while in US on H-1.

  2. Sally

    I am currently in the US on a visitor’s visa (B-2) which expires on June 8th 2011. I put in an application for an H1B visa in january for the FY2011CAP as they still had not completed the CAP limit.They are still processing my application and I submitted RFE, request for additional evidence last month. Is there a grace period for me to carry on staying here as they process my visa after my visitor’s visa expires?

    1. administrator

      Was your H-1 filed w/ COS? If yes, then based on pending COS you should be able to stay in US. However, if it was filed w/o COS then you will have to leave US before expiry date of the I-94. A person can stay up to 180 days based on pending COS/extension.

      Also, in case USCIS denies your H-1 and/or COS then anytime you spent in US after 8th June would be considered as illegal stay. In other words, you would need to leave US ASAP in case of denial.

  3. Pauline

    I am thinking of switching my job but I am under H1-B visa.
    How can I get my prospective employer to transfer my current H1-B and apply for the next stage of immigration status as well. Most importantly can he file for H1-B and get it before I start working for him?

    1. administrator

      The new employer would need to file an H-1 petition for you (same process as any regular H-1 petition). They would also have to submit copy of your existing 797 petition and recent payslips and W-2 to show that you have already been counted in the quota before and have been maintaining legal status in US. USCIS will then review and approve/deny the petition.

      You can start working for the new employer as soon as USCIS generates the receipt number. However, lot of people wait for the actual petition to get approved. This is a safer option as you might end up in a bad situation if you join the new employer based on the receipt number and then USCIS denies that petition.

  4. Prasad


    I just wanted to really appreciate your efforts in providing clarifications and most importantly a clue on these immigration stuff. I hope you guys keep going and continue your valuable help to thousands of people out there.

    May God give you all the resources required ( material & immaterial)

    Thank you so much guys!!

  5. rajesh

    Hi I have applied for H1B from employer 1 during the same time my L1B is also applied by the same employer.now i got my L1B petition and i would be going to stamping this month. when i checked my H1B status its showing FRA would this affect my L1B stamping or will i be facing any issuse when i go for stamping pls suggest

    1. administrator

      Was the visa filed for same position? You may be questioned about H-1 filing. Get in touch w/ your employer to know about the job responsibilities for H-1 and L-1 filings and have your answers set straight.

      BTW, what is FRA?

  6. Sriram


    Recently I converted my petition to Premium. When I checked the site, the status was updated to Acceptance from Initial Review. Was that a process in USCIS? I see that for many the premium has been approved in 3 – 5 days (mostly). The maximum time period is 15 days I suppose.

  7. rajesh

    Hi All

    I am having L1B and my query is

    1) can L1B be converted to H1B
    2) Whats the process of converting L1B to H1B
    3) for this should i travel again to india and get my H1B stamped??

    1. administrator

      1. There is nothing like conversion. Your employer will have to file H-1B just like any other sponsoring employer and your petitions will be subject to quota/fees/rules just like any other petition . The only difference is because you are already in US, your employer can file w/ COS which allows you to start working on H-1 w/o having the necessity of going out of country and getting H-1 stamped.

      2. Find an employer -> Employer files the H-1 w/ COS -> USCIS approves H-1 and COS -> You start working on H-1

      3. If filed and approved w/ COS, you don’t need to get H-1 stamped immediately. Otherwise you will have to get H-1 stamped before starting to work on H-1.

  8. chitranjan


    I am on OPT Extension (F1 visa) and my OPT extension is expiring on July 15,2011. As I get 2 months grace period so I can stay in US till Sept. 15,2011. My company is sponsoring my H1 B visa and I will be able to apply by April 26, 2011 or May 26, 2011.

    1. How long does it take to receive H1 B receipt after applying for H1b visa?

    2. Can I stay in US after grace period ( witout going back to my country) if I receive H1B receipt before Sept 15,2011

    3. Can I continue working after July 15,2011 if I receive H1B receipt before July 15,2011?

    4. As H1B visa allows you to work from Oct.1, 2011 so there is a cap gap between July 15,2011 and Oct.1, 2011. Can I work for my company without getting paid during this period and get paid after Oct. for that work? Is there any possible way to work and get paid during this period? There should be some way.

    5. What if I find another H1B sponsor. Can I work for two H1B sponsor? if yes,do I need to apply separately for second H1 Visa with second company or I can work with second company by using my first company’s H1 Visa.

    1. administrator

      1. Receipt is usually received within 2-3 weeks. Actual processing may take few months.
      2. Based on “cap gap”, you can continue to stay in US and work until 1st Oct 2011. Remember to file your petition in a manner that makes it cap-gap eligible.
      3. Yes, if it’s eligible for “cap-gap”
      4. You can work normally based on “cap-gap” and get paid regularly during that period.
      5. You can work on H-1 for an employer only if you have an approved petition for that employer. You cannot work full-time for two employers on H-1 simultaneously (you can’t work 40 hours a week for two employers), but you can work part-time for a 2nd employer. Once both employers have filed the petitions, and they are approved you can work for both of them and ensuring you are getting paid as per the respective LCAs.

  9. ajgar


    I am currently working in a small company. I talked to my employer about H1B visa. He won’t be able to sponsor me because of High H1B fees. Because if I leave his company soon then he is not going to get that money back.

    what if I ask him to provide all paperwork for h1 b visa and pay all the fees for H1B visa and then I gradually pay him back from my salary or by cash. This way I am paying all the amount and it will not be his loss even if leave the company. If I pay by cash, there is no proof that he didn’t sponsor me. Is this a normal approach that has been used in the past by several other employees. I know sometimes employees pay partially for H1B visa. Will it be a problem?

    This way I will not have to search for other job and move to other city. I also don’t want to work with consultancies. I think this is the best solution of all the problems. What do you say?

    1. administrator

      It is illegal for the employee to pay for H-1 fees either directly upfront or indirectly through salary deductions. Rest is your discretion.

      1. Ajgar

        Thanks for reply.

        I don’t want to do any illegal thing so I have decided to move to other country (Australlia or UK) if I couldn’t find a H1B sponsor.

        I have a masters degree in Computer Science froma US university and I am Microsoft Certified IT Professional. I have excellent IT and programming skills .

        How can I get a IT Job and work visa in Australlia OR UK from US without going there. I don’t want to go there first and search for job. Instead of that I will prefer to get a job offer from a company and visa before I travel to Australlia OR UK.

        Do you know a website or a way by which I can apply for australlian or UK based companies from US and arrange phone or online interviews. There must be a website or something way by which australlian or UK based companies (which are interested in hiring foreign candidates) hire foreign candidates.

        I know this question is probably not related to this forum but i thought may be you know the answer that’s why I am asked you about it. I apologize if you don’t know the answer.


  10. Anand

    Hi Saurabh,

    I had been for H1B interview in mumbai consulate on 9th feb & officer issued me yellow 221g administrative processing slip with 2nd option selected.

    Wondering how long it will take to get feedback from them ?? i already postponed my travel date which was on 26th feb.


    1. administrator

      Have they asked you to submit any documents or did they mention it’s under PIMS? Did they keep your passport?

      Usually there is no set timelines. In best case scenario, they would let you know within couple of weeks, and in worst case scenario it may take few months time.

      1. Anand

        Hi Saurabh,

        Thks for ur reply

        They gave me a plastic envelope with VFS address on it along with yellow 221g letter & they give me my passport back & no other documents mention .No it is not under PIMS .

        Is there a way out to know about ur case is it under process or etc ??


        1. administrator

          Looks like they are doing a background check on the employer and/or potential project details. If everything goes well, they will contact you to submit the passport, else they would deny the visa.

          You can call them up periodically, but usually they don’t have (or don’t provide) much information over the phone.

  11. chetan


    I am on OPT and currently working for a company. My work permit is expiring in July. My current company will not be able to sponsor H1B visa so I am looking for new job. I have following questions:

    1. Can I get H1B visa on the basis of contract jobs (duration 3 months, 6 months or 1 year) with good salary like $45/hour?

    2.. Will I get only 1 year visa for 1 year contract job or it will be 3 years visa?

    3. Will I have to get another job with H1b visa before that contract ends or I can find it later (like with in next two months after 1 year contract)?

    4. How long can I remain unemployed during 3 years of H1 visa?

    5. Can I travel to India before when my h1B visa is valid ad I am working on contract job? Or it will be a problem.

    Please reply as soon as possible.

    Thanks in advance.

    1. administrator

      1. H-1 is always applied for full-time job. Your H-1 employer can then place you as a contractor at a client site. When applying for H-1, the employer may be asked to submit project details which may vary from few months to few years.

      2. Depends. At times USCIS gives 3 year H-1 even for 1 year project if they feel that the company is an established one and has enough resources to pay you for 3 years. Otherwise, they would issue H-1 for the project term. Note, that H-1 can still be extended up to 6 years, but you may have to provide project information for each renewal.

      3. Your H-1 employer will have to place you in another project as your initial project ends. You can also change employer anytime during your project. Most of the consulting companies will ask you to sit on bench if they don’t have projects for you, and will not pay you salary during that period. This is illegal on H-1 and one needs to be getting paid all the while irrespective of whether they are a billable resource or not.

      4. Never.

      5. Yes, a person can travel in and out of US during H-1 employment period. You will need a valid unexpired H-1 stamp in order to re-enter and always need to carry proof of employment during travel and stamping.

      1. Chetan

        Thanks for quick reply.

        I have few more questions:

        1. My work permit is expiring on july 11,2011. I can stay in US for next two months. What if I get a H1B visa sponsor after July 11,2011? Can I still apply for h1b visa? Will there be any problem.

        2. I am also applying in non profit organizations. Do non profit organizations sponsor H1B visa without any problem? Do they also pay H1B fees when they sponsor someone or they are exempt?

        3. If I apply for Ph.D. or MBA , can I get extend F1 visa after July 11,2011? How long does it take?

        4. What if I find a H1B sponsor after enrolling in Ph.D. Can I change my visa from F1 to H1? Will it be a problem in getting H1 visa as I will have to leave the Ph. D. ?

        5. My work permit is expiring on July 11,2011. If I join a consultancy which can sponsor my h1 visa then they will take some time in applying for H1 visa. How many month before July 11,2011 should I join them so that they could get enough time to apply for H1 and I could stay in US? Here I am trying to get an estimate how much time i have left for finding a H1B sponsor without help of consultancies.

        1. administrator

          1. I am not 100% sure, but I think your H-1 can be applied even during the grace period. Check w/ a lawyer or your DSO.

          2. Yes, some of the not for profit organizations do sponsor H-1s. They do have to pay the fees, although actual fees may depend upon their organization structure.

          3. Not sure about that, check w/ your DSO.

          4. It is preferred not to leave studies in b/w and move to an employment visa. Doing so makes the government feel that you have cheated them (when filing F-1 one’s intent should not be migrate, and H-1 is a dual intent visa). I would be careful when doing that.

          5. Different companies may take different time. There are companies that would file the H-1 immediately, while others would like to file H-1 based on your performance. Consulting companies tend to file H-1 immediately. I would say start looking around as soon as you get a chance, because finding the right company may also take sometime.

          1. Chetan

            Thank you very much saurabh. You are awesome. You answered all of my questions very quickly and helped me a lot. Great work man.

  12. swaroop

    my friend has H1B petition papers that are valid till Aug 2010 can he go for staming now and if he goes how long would the H1B visa valid? He never has been to US earlier

    If he wants to go for stamming can he do it in germany as he is currently working in germany

    1. administrator

      His H1 petition has already expired. He cannot go for visa stamping w/ an expired petition. His employer needs to file a new petition/extension, and once approved, he can go for visa stamping.

      It is usually recommended to go to the home country for the first stamping, but he can call the US consulate in Germany and ask them if they will be willing to accept his case as he is working in that country.

  13. Nitin


    my h1 had been filed on 4th oct 2010 at US Citizenship & Immigration Services
    Vermont Service Center
    75 Lower Weldon Street
    St. Albans, VT 05479-0001.

    i heard that this year no lottery but does this mean my h1 get approved for sure if everything is in place properly. any idea when i ll get it? approximate time period ?

    Thanks in advance!

    1. administrator

      No lottery implies USCIS will accept all the petitions that have been filed, and will approve all those petitions that have been filed correctly, meet all the H1-B requirements and have all the necessary documents.

        1. administrator

          Nitin as Saurabh mentioned, you can hear back anywhere from 2 to 6 months. You just have to wait and be patient my friend !

  14. swaroop

    Hi All

    Heard that there is no lottery system for H1B for 2011 . My H1B is filed on oct 27
    can some one let me know when i would get the petition

    1. administrator

      Yes, no lottery has happened in FY2011. You should have received the petition number by now. If not, get in touch w/ your employer/attorney for that information.

      The processing time right now is 3-4 months.

    1. administrator

      Depends where your petition was filed. There is a big delay at Vermont Service Center (they are still processing petitions from April 2010), while California Service Center is taking 2 months for processing.

        1. administrator

          As per USCIS website, CSC is having 2 month processing delay. So you should hear something in the next month or so.

          Good luck!

          1. Gopinath

            CSC meant for california correct? you have mentioned in the earlier post that california processing time of 2months. Correct me if iam wrong here. CSC and WAC, what is meant for which service centre?

          2. Gopinath

            Saurabh, I got the below info, thanks.

            LIN – Nebraska Service Center (LIN refers to Lincoln, Nebraska).
            EAC – Vermont Service Center (old name: Eastern Adjudication Center).
            SRC – Texas Service Center (old name: Southern Regional Center).
            WAC – California Service Center (old name: Western Adjudication Center).

          3. selvakannans

            Hi Kumar,
            In California site it is showing like ,
            Field Office Processing Dates for California Service Center as of: July 31, 2010

            what is it mean.my petition got filed on jul 27th in California center. when i can expect the work permit.


  15. RR

    Hi Kumar,

    I have a question regarding H1B Visa stamping. I am working at Wellington New Zealand on an employer sponsored work visa. Apart from this I applied for Permanent Residence Visa for NZ and got it approved. So now I hold PR for NZ as well. My question is should it be possible for me to get H1B Visa stamping done from US Embassy at New Zealand..? Please guide.


    1. administrator

      I think it should be possible to get stamping in NZ. Honestly, it depends on the embassy… If I were you, I would call the embassy and clarify.

    2. H1 B stamping in New zealand

      Hi , Did you got your Visa Stamped in New Zeland . I am in same situation and was wondering if you can help .


  16. S

    Hi Kumar, will rejection of an earlier L1B Blanket Visa refuse H1B visa as well? What are the chances of getting H1B this year ? L1B was rejected earlier u/s 8-214.2

    1. administrator

      Well, not necessarily. It depends on the company and how they file the visa. There is no way to guess the chance of getting approval, it varies by case.

  17. Gopinath

    Hi Kumar,
    You have replied to one of the post below like,
    “You can apply anytime until the cap is not filled for FY2011. The sooner the better.”
    You mean there is no time limit at all, People say that we will get the VISA approved by October for the approved petitions. How will it get processed..?

    1. administrator

      Gopinath, Last year the cap lasted until late December. Even if you apply after October, you will be counted for FY2011 cap and your application will be processed.

      1. Gopinath

        Thanks for your reply kumar. So its a good news for teh people who not yet applied. But for those who applied, when will we get the status of the application. My petition got filed in June 15, i see the duration will be 2months for getting processed. Approximately, when can i expect the call for the interview if all is well from my side..? Is there any chance to get the VISA by sep/oct even the cap is not completed 65k…

        1. administrator

          There is no interview for H1B approval from USCIS. Visa is different from H1B approval. You will be counted towards cap and will hear back from USCIS in anywhere from 2 to 6 months.

          1. Gopinath

            Yes, there is no interview for approval. I mean the when can we expect the call from USCIS..? so are you telling we can expect the call from 2 to 6months…? Let me ask the question in this way,

            My petition got filed by June 15th, my employer told that mostly my petition will get approved and i will be getting my VISA in hand by Sep/Oct, assuming all is well from my side like documents, employer etc..
            Since, my petition got filed in June 15 and lets assume that Cap is not complted 65k by sep/oct, Is there any chance for me to get the VISA in hand around sep/oct…?

          2. Gopinath

            Kumar, I am posting the same qstn with minor changes as below,
            Yes, there is no interview for approval. I mean when can we expect the call from USCIS..? so are you telling we can expect the call from 2 to 6months…? Let me ask the question in this way,

            My petition got filed by June 15th, my employer told that mostly my petition will get approved and i will be getting my VISA in hand by Sep/Oct, assuming all is well from my side like documents, employer etc..
            Since, my petition got filed in June 15 and lets assume that Cap is not complted 65k by sep/oct, Is there any chance for me to get the H1 B approved and to get the VISA in hand around sep/oct…?

          3. administrator

            You only get approval notice to your hand from your employer or USCIS. You will have to apply for Visa stamping in consulate and get your passport stamped with H1B visa. You get visa when you apply( after you get h1B approval notice). There is no cap limit for visa stamping.

          4. Gopinath

            Thanks much for clarifying. So, can i expect my petition to get approved anytime between 2-6 months correct (if all documents, employer is well from my side). Already, nearly 2months got over.

  18. Samuel

    So with no lottery system this time, can we say we have 100% chances of getting H1B visa on hand, if in case the submitted documents are perfect???

    Is there any other constraints??


    1. administrator

      Samuel, there is nothing like 100% chance. Yes, if the application is filed properly and company is good, you should get it.

  19. Anand

    Hi Kumar,

    My sponser says he has already filed my LCA on 16th July & once he gets that approved then he will file the petition with LCA & other reqd documents to INS

    I need 2 confirm whether he really had filed for LCA is there a way out where i can check it & how long it takes 2 receive 13 digit verification code …

    1. administrator

      Well, up to my knowledge, I do not know if there is a direct way to know it. You just have to trust your employer.

  20. David

    Applied for H1 from Canada on April 1.
    Entered US through L2 in June. Received L2 I-94.
    Got H1 approval I-797B in July. Did not receive I-94.

    Q1) Do I require a COS from L2 to H1?
    Q2) If not, can I work for my employer from Oct 1 onwards on H1 Visa?

    1. administrator

      David, Here are my thoughts.
      Q1) Yeah, I think you require a COS from L2 to H1 and corresponding I94. Your employer has to apply for a COS so that you get the I-94.
      Q2) You will have to get visa stamped by going outside at end of September or apply for COS if you wish to stay in US. Think logically, if your I94 says L2 and you are working on H1 visa after Oct 1st, thats a mismatch in your status from Immigration perspective.

  21. Anand

    Hi Kumar,

    My IT CONSULTANT USA based who is my H1B Sponser says that my contract will be for 1 yr with the company & jobs will be on contract basis or contract to hire basis & as H1B Visa is for 3 yrs so in this case i have 2 search before 1 yr finishes for new job & once i get new job than i need 2 get H1B Visa transfer ??

    1. administrator

      Anand, the rules are very fluid with IT Consultants. What he is trying to tell you is you have to stick with his company for one year. I do not think you would have to transfer to anyone or do anything after 1 year, it is just making you sign contract to stay with them for one year…because, people switch often after they come to US.

  22. angela

    I have recently found out of a possibility to get a job that would sponsor me to get the visa. When is the latest I could apply?

  23. Anand

    Hi Kumar,

    I had applied from India in one of the IT CONSULTING CO USA Based for my H1B Visa & i payed around 4000 USD equivalent INR as security deposit which will b refunded after 1 yr.They say once my approval is approved from INS they will start marketing my resume & based on my performance in the interview they will decide the package.Pls respond 2 my queries below

    1)How much total costs for H1B Visa expenses ???
    2)They say if i get any project then only i need 2 fly 2 usa so how is market there, i m into system admin job

    I am worried now as i have paid whole amount & if the market is good there then only i can get projects, well it is not like it happen in the year 2009 recession period no jobs available manpower reduction etc. i hope this & coming year 2010-11 will be ok for IT

    Waiting for ur reply


  24. Ram

    Please clarify whether minimum salary for H1B VISA holders has been increased to 1,00,000 USD in many locations like california and they are planning to apply this to all locations in US.

    One of the top indian IT company is not processing H1B stating that wage problems.

  25. Syed


    In case complete quota is not consumed, will all the applicants receive the visa ???

    I mean of 65k in general quota, only 50k is applied for, then will there be lottery system or all the 50k applicants become eligible for H1B?


    1. administrator

      Visa is different from H1B approval. Issuance of H1B has nothing to do with cap. It is the approvals that are subject to cap. The point is, if you get approval, and all your paperwork is good, you should get visa, it is not subject to any cap.

  26. Kumar001

    If this quota does not fill up by December 2010, will remaining be carried forward till March 31st of 2011 ? or all remaining quota will die on Jan 1st 2011?

    Any confirmation on this?

    1. administrator

      I do not think they necessarily expire in January. If the cap is not filled by Dec, it may go up for next few months. No, it does not carry forward to next year quota. Check this article : http://redbus2us.com/h1-b-visa-petitions-cap-reached-dates-by-year-from-2000-to-2010-recession-impact-and-trend-analysis-plot-from-2000-%E2%80%93-2010-for-2011-decision/

    2. Mugar

      Kumar is correct. In fact, this scenario happened once before in FY2000. The cap reached on March 21, 2000. So, let’s keep our fingers crossed. I am very optimistic about this. I think there is a great chance that cap will remain available till march or even we are experiencing one of those “not-reached” years.

  27. Mugar

    Considering the shadow of double-dip recession, GOP hesitation to extend bush tax cut for the wealthiest which itself increases the national debt, and Obama’s intention to extend jobless benefits which-I believe- deviates political muscles from focusing on creating jobs to helping some unemployed dudes, all, favor an upcoming late onset (compared to last year early onset) plateau in your graph in the next few weeks. In fact, slipping into a plateau (or a very mild slope) phase in the graph has begun. Needless to say the continuation of this mild slope which tends to become plateau phase is just a “Maybe”, however, it can be considered a strong probability based on economic factors.

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